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Full text of "Flora Indica Vol-I"

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256                                      JPLORA   JNDICA.
northern slope of the Safed Koh range, which bounds the
valley of the Kabul river on the south, it being lofty, and snow-
clad almost throughout the year. The pines are Pinus exceha
and Gerardiana, Abies Smithiana, and Cedrus Deodttra: of
these the deodar appears to be the most abundant. In thcj
temperate zone Juniperus excelsa is of occasional ociun'rencc.
The oak of these forests is Quercus Ilex, a species which ex-
tends from the south of Europe as far as Kunawar. With
thetoak; species of JEsculus, Olea, Myrtus, and Amyydahw
occur.
In the tropical zone, which skirts the whole region, the
plants are the same as those of Sind and the Panjab, which
again are identical with those of tropical Arabia and of south
Persia. A few scattered pistacias, with Celtis and Dodon&a,
are almost the only trees; though in some ^alleys there are
small woods of Populus Euphratica. The dale is cultivated
in Bduchistan and Southern Afghanistan up to 4500 feet,
and a dwarf palm (Cham&rops Ritchieana of Griffith,, perhaps
identical with the Gham&rops humilis of Europe) occui's abun-
dantly in many places, but with a somewhat local distribu-
tion.
Above 4000 feet, or a little higher in Beluchistan, the
tropical gives place to the true oriental flora. Aromatic
shrubs, chiefly Artemisia and Labiate, cover the plains, and
prickly Statice and Astragali abound on the dry .hills. Cruci-
fer&, Umbellifera, Boraginea, Cynaracea, and Cichoracea are
extremely abundanfe far more so than in India; ^ith Rosa,
Lycium, Berberis, and other Syrian shrubs. In early spring
there is here, as in the Mediterranean region, an extremely
luxuriant vegetation, and the genera, if not the species, are
the' same. Hyacinthus, Lilium, Tulipa, Fritittaria, Narcissus,
CoteMcumi Jxiolirion, Anemone, and Delphinium may be men-
tioned as instances.
In many places the soil is saline, and the Chenopodiaceq
mentioned as natives of Tibet, as well as Ct&u*
abundant.